Black Cats have long had their special day – in fact, they have two days. Depending on who you ask, Black Cat Appreciation Day is celebrated on August 17 and October 27. And for many years, every year on those two dates, I have asked myself why there is no Tortoiseshell Cat Appreciation Day. Well, that’s about to change!Continue Reading
It’s always sad when a friend’s cat dies. My heart hurts for what I know they’re about to go through as they mourn their loss. We’ve all been there, and even though everyone grieves in their own unique way, we all know how hard it is. This past Wednesday a tortie named Brooke lost her battle with cancer. Brooke has a special place in my heart. She belonged to very dear friends of mine, and if it wasn’t for Brooke, I never might have met them.Continue Reading
When a Cambridge, New York man found a stray tortoiseshell cat on the street, he took her in, then realized that she had had kittens under his porch. While he was on the way to the vet with her, he stopped for coffee, and she got out of his car. He was unable to catch her. But this tortie was on a mission: she made her way to the Mansion, a nearby assisted care facility. It soon became clear that she wanted to live there.Continue Reading
The vast majority of tortoiseshell cats are female, because two X chromosomes are required to produce black, gold and orange coloring. Male cats only have one X and one Y chromosome, so technically it’s genetically almost impossible for a male to inherit the tortoiseshell coloring. A male tortoiseshell has an extra X chromosome, making it an XXY. According to a study by the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Missouri, only 1 in 3,000 tortoiseshell cats is male. Due to the chromosome imbalance, male tortoiseshell cats are (usually) sterile.Continue Reading
Veterinarians from UC Davis have discovered, in recently published research, that cats with calico and tortoiseshell coat patterns tend to challenge their human companions more often than cats of other colors. This certainly comes as no surprise to anyone who has ever been owned by a tortie or calico, but I found it interesting that we are starting to see studies that seem to confirm that tortitude is real.Continue Reading
A new study at the University of California Davis suggests that there may be a link between feline aggression and certain coat colors. Lead researcher Dr. Liz Stelow and her team looked at data from 1,274 anonymous cat caretakers who answered an online survey about their cats’ behavior.Continue Reading
When Elizabeth Moore went to her local veterinary clinic to buy food for her cat Toby, she wasn’t planning on falling in love with a little tortie kitten. Little did she know that less than a year later, Lucy would save her life. Here is Lucy’s story, in Elizabeth’s own words.Continue Reading
“The gold and orange and yellow of tortoiseshell cats may seem more of an autumn theme, but for me those bright colors always meant June and sunshine,” says animal artist and writer Bernadette E. Kazmarski. “I love to welcome the summer with my tortie girls Cookie and Kelly on as many items as I can make.”
She originally designed these prints in 2001 before digital and gicleé printing were affordable to sell at art festivals and to donate to shelter and rescue events.Continue Reading
I am super excited to announce that Mango Media will be publishing my new book, Tortitude: The Little Book of Cats With a Big Attitude, in February of 2016. The book will include fun facts about torties, as well as funny, inspirational and thought-provoking quotes, and, of course, lots and lots of photos of torties.
If you’re a long-time cat owner or an animal health professional, you’ve probably heard or made certain blanket statements about a kitty’s personality based on their coat color. For example, orange male cats are widely assumed to be among the sweetest kitties you’ll ever meet. On the other end of the spectrum, tortoiseshell cats have quite a reputation of their own!
The unique personality of tortoiseshell cats is known as “tortitude” and because the assumption of their attitude is so commonly held, cats of this color are likely to be judged instantly by potential owners. In this article, we’ll talk about what “tortitude” is and whether it’s real. We’ll also discuss some possible reasons for this belief about tortoiseshell cats and other factors that may be more influential in shaping their personalities than coat color.
What Is Tortitude?
Cats as a whole are often considered independent and unpredictable, less affectionate than dogs, although research disputes this theory.
Tortoiseshell cats, in particular, often seem to display these types of personality traits. Many are high-strung and dislike sharing their homes with other pets. They may be affectionate one minute and hissing the next.
Torties are sometimes called “the divas of the cat world” because they typically like things done their way and have a quick temper when crossed. Veterinary professionals, who interact with countless different cats over their careers, tend to approach dealing with torties a bit more cautiously because of their often unpredictable responses.
Cats with “tortitude” may be more independent, like to keep to themselves and display a fiery personality when they do interact with people. They are often sassy, energetic, and talkative kitties as well. Tortie owners often expect to deal with a certain amount of unwanted behavior like swatting, scratching, and even nipping.
While that may sound unpleasant, tortie cats and their unique personalities have plenty of fans among kitty owners. They love the quirks, tolerate the sass, and soak up the affection when their torties do decide to hand it out.
Is Tortitude Real?
We all know what they say about assumptions, so before we judge a whole coat color of a cat let’s find out if there’s any evidence to support the general feelings about torties.
In 2016, researchers at the University of California-Davis vet school published a study about cat coat color and personality. The study was based on the results of a survey of over 1,200 cat owners who weren’t told what the research was for but were asked to answer questions about their cat’s interactions with humans and describe their personalities.
The results of the survey support the idea that torties and similarly-colored calico cats do display challenging and aggressive behaviors more often than many other cat colors.
Specifically, the study found that these kitties were more likely to swat, hiss, chase, scratch, or bite during interactions with humans. Gray-and-white and black-and-white cats were also slightly more likely to behave this way.
Obviously, this study was based only on owner observations of a limited pool of cats so it does come with some continued questions. One question to ponder is whether the owners’ interpretation of their pet’s behavior was influenced by the general reputation of tortoiseshell cats.
No research has yet proven an actual genetic link between tortoiseshell coat color and personality. However, the results of this study, along with observations from those with a lot of experience handling cats, suggest that “tortitude” is probably real to a certain extent.
Female cats are widely considered more independent and less affectionate than male kitties. Again, this assumption tends to be based on observations rather than verifiable facts, but it exists nonetheless, to the point that several studies have confirmed its existence.
Tortoiseshell and calico cats are almost universally female because the gene that produces the coat color is sex-linked. Female cats, like female humans, carry a XX chromosome. Coat color is controlled by genes on the X chromosome, one for orange fur and one for black.
Male cats possess XY chromosomes, so they only have one X controlling their coat color. Because females have XX chromosomes, they have two possible coat color genes. During genetic development, one gene on each chromosome is inactivated, but the process is random.
Tortoiseshell and calico cats are female cats who end up with active color genes in both orange and black. Calicos possess an additional gene change that results in white color with the black and orange. The occasional male calico or tortoiseshell is actually the result of a genetic mutation rather than normal development.
When you combine the assumption about female cats’ personalities with the fact that torties are almost always female, it’s logical to wonder whether that might contribute to their reputation for “tortitude.”
What Other Factors Influence a Tortoiseshell Cat’s Personality?
The tortie’s coat color may or may not have a verifiable impact on their personality, but there are some other factors involved as well. These causes apply more generally to all cats, not just tortoiseshells, and have more of a basis in research.
Cats inherit some personality traits from their parents, just as humans do. A 2019 study from Finland found that almost half of the behavioral differences among cats are inherited. Both overall personality and behavior traits showed genetic links among the cats studied.
The study was conducted using primarily purebred cats but did include mixed-breed house cats as well. Because tortoiseshell is a color pattern, not a breed, many purebred cats are born this color, including popular ones such as the Maine Coon. Your tortie’s personality may be shaped by these purebred cat traits, including inherited ones discovered by this study.
Early socialization is a major factor in the development of a cat’s personality. The American Association of Feline Practitioners says that 3–9 weeks old is the most crucial behavioral window for kitten development. Kittens who interact with humans during this time are unlikely to develop a fear of them in the future, while cats who are poorly socialized at this age may have behavioral issues as adults.
Research has found that kittens who had multiple positive interactions with humans between 2–7.5 weeks tend to remain friendlier towards humans later in life. Kittens with good early socialization adapted more quickly to new humans. For these cats, it takes only a few positive interactions with a new person for them to trust them.
At the same time, kittens who were poorly socialized during that crucial early window grow up much more fearful and wary of humans. They need many positive interactions with a human before they trust them, while only a few negative experiences may trigger a fearful response.
If your tortoiseshell cat has an unknown history as a kitten, there’s no way for you to know if they received adequate socialization. A potential lack of socialization definitely could result in some “tortitude” as an adult.
Human behavior tends to influence a cat’s attitude as an adult as well as when they are kittens.
Socialization continues throughout the cat’s life, with studies showing connections between how often cats and owners interact and whether these interactions were considered positive. Because so much of the observations of “tortitude” depend on human interpretation of a cat’s behavior, these interactions take on added meaning.
Some of how humans and cats interact is a bit of a vicious cycle. For example, humans may be more likely to view an interaction with the cat as positive when the kitty comes to them and asks for attention. If a cat is standoff-ish—as many tortoiseshell cats are—humans may view them more negatively and interact less often.
As we learned in the previous section, cats who weren’t well socialized as kittens need extra positive associations with people to develop good relationships. If the human is less likely to give attention when the cat doesn’t seek it out, it can be hard to break through that shell.
As we’ve learned, torties may have a reputation for “tortitude,” but their personality isn’t entirely based on their coat color. If you’re looking for a new cat, don’t let the reputation of the tortie scare you away. Many owners enjoy the spunky, entertaining personalities of these cats, along with their striking coat colors.
While it’s important to be aware of the potential for “tortitude,” remember that you have some impact on how your cat behaves. Every cat is unique, no matter their coat color, and the best match for your household also depends on your own personality and compatibility with your new pet. Torties won’t be the right fit for everyone, but truthfully that’s the case for any pet.
Cat mom to Ivy – a feisty little rescue kitten that is her one and only child. For now! Throughout her life, she has been introduced to the special love that can be found in the bond with a cat. Having owned multiple felines, she is more than certain that their love is unmatched, unconditional and unlike any other. With a passion to educate the public about everything, there is to know about felines, their behavior, and their unique personalities, Crystal is devoted to making sure that all cats and their owners know the importance of conscious living – and loving!
Each spring during kitten season, thousands of newborn kittens join the millions of cats already in shelters and foster homes across the country. The American Humane Association has designated June as Adopt-a-Cat Month® to help find more cats forever homes.
Even if you can’t adopt a cat, there are other ways you can help find homes for cats during Adopt-a-Cat month, and every month:Continue Reading